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鋰電池回收處理設備一種新型鋰電池回收處理新工藝
發布時間:2023-10-21 15:10:26 瀏覽

鋰電(dian)池(chi)主(zhu)要(yao)由充當(dang)隔斷作(zuo)用的薄(bo)膜(mo)、正(zheng)負極(ji)粉(fen),電(dian)解液,外殼組(zu)成,附(fu)在(zai)正(zheng)極(ji)上(shang)面(mian)的黑色粉(fen)末為(wei)隔膜(mo),負極(ji)上(shang)面(mian)的為(wei)石(shi)墨(mo),石(shi)墨(mo)和正(zheng)極(ji)上(shang)面(mian)的粉(fen)末統稱做黑粉(fen);鋰電(dian)池(chi)在(zai)超過使用壽命后需要(yao)將其(qi)破(po)碎(sui)回(hui)收(shou);回(hui)收(shou)主(zhu)要(yao)得的為(wei):黑粉(fen)、銅鋁、電(dian)解液以及金屬(shu)外殼。現在(zai)常用的鋰電(dian)池(chi)分離回(hui)收(shou)方法為(wei):將鋰電(dian)池(chi)直接破(po)碎(sui),沒(mei)有密封空間和氮(dan)氣保(bao)護,環境污染,對操(cao)作(zuo)人(ren)員有危害,同時(shi)沒(mei)有對電(dian)解液回(hui)收(shou)浪費資(zi)源。

一(yi)種預處理式鋰電池分離回收方(fang)法,其方(fang)法為:

1、首先對鋰(li)(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)進行(xing)預(yu)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)處理,防(fang)止在破碎(sui)鋰(li)(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)時里面有(you)電(dian)(dian)(dian)能,有(you)電(dian)(dian)(dian)能的(de)鋰(li)(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)在破碎(sui)時會(hui)起火,采用(yong)(yong)化學放電(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)方(fang)式對鋰(li)(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)進行(xing)放電(dian)(dian)(dian),用(yong)(yong)于(yu)保證放電(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)徹底性(xing),然(ran)后對預(yu)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)后的(de)鋰(li)(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)進行(xing)干燥,去除鋰(li)(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)上(shang)的(de)水(shui)份(fen),將(jiang)干燥后的(de)鋰(li)(li)(li)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)放置于(yu)上(shang)料機構上(shang);

2、進(jin)(jin)(jin)而(er)(er)開始對鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)進(jin)(jin)(jin)行粗破(po)工序:上料(liao)(liao)機(ji)構將鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)放置(zhi)于(yu)粗破(po)機(ji)內(nei)(nei),然后粗破(po)機(ji)將鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)放置(zhi)于(yu)第二(er)粗破(po)機(ji)內(nei)(nei),在(zai)此(ci)過程中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)使(shi)鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)處(chu)于(yu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)液內(nei)(nei),防止破(po)碎(sui)(sui)的(de)(de)時候鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)起火,并(bing)溶解(jie)鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)破(po)碎(sui)(sui)后產生(sheng)的(de)(de)化(hua)(hua)學物(wu)(wu)質(zhi)(zhi),在(zai)此(ci)過程中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)鋰電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)內(nei)(nei)的(de)(de)化(hua)(hua)學物(wu)(wu)質(zhi)(zhi)在(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)液內(nei)(nei)揮(hui)發(fa)(fa),破(po)碎(sui)(sui)后的(de)(de)物(wu)(wu)料(liao)(liao)進(jin)(jin)(jin)入低溫蒸發(fa)(fa)設(she)備(bei);在(zai)此(ci)過程中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)冷(leng)(leng)凝(ning)(ning)設(she)備(bei)將電(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)液內(nei)(nei)揮(hui)發(fa)(fa)出來的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)液冷(leng)(leng)凝(ning)(ning)后重復使(shi)用,用于(yu)收(shou)集(ji)揮(hui)發(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)有害(hai)化(hua)(hua)學物(wu)(wu)質(zhi)(zhi)和電(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)液;在(zai)此(ci)過程中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)解(jie)液中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)不能(neng)冷(leng)(leng)凝(ning)(ning)的(de)(de)物(wu)(wu)質(zhi)(zhi)排放到尾氣處(chu)理設(she)備(bei)內(nei)(nei),進(jin)(jin)(jin)而(er)(er)尾氣處(chu)理設(she)備(bei)將不能(neng)冷(leng)(leng)凝(ning)(ning)的(de)(de)有害(hai)尾氣燒掉;

3、然后進行(xing)破(po)碎(sui)分(fen)離工序(xu):先對粗破(po)后的(de)(de)鋰電(dian)池(chi)進行(xing)再次破(po)碎(sui),進一步破(po)碎(sui)鋰電(dian)池(chi),將(jiang)破(po)碎(sui)后的(de)(de)鋰電(dian)池(chi)放(fang)置于振(zhen)動篩(shai)上,在(zai)此(ci)過程(cheng)中黑(hei)粉為篩(shai)下物(wu),銅(tong)(tong)箔以(yi)及鋁箔掉落(luo)到磁選(xuan)輸送機輸送下一道破(po)碎(sui),在(zai)此(ci)過程(cheng)中旋風(feng)分(fen)離器工作將(jiang)振(zhen)動篩(shai)上的(de)(de)隔膜和(he)黑(hei)粉吸走,旋風(feng)分(fen)離器將(jiang)尾氣吹入(ru)(ru)脈(mo)沖除(chu)塵(chen)器內,對尾氣進行(xing)處理,與此(ci)同時旋風(feng)分(fen)離器將(jiang)隔膜和(he)黑(hei)粉吸入(ru)(ru)第二振(zhen)動篩(shai)上面,在(zai)此(ci)過程(cheng)中第二振(zhen)動篩(shai)將(jiang)小(xiao)(xiao)顆粒篩(shai)分(fen),顆粒小(xiao)(xiao)的(de)(de)黑(hei)粉通(tong)過第二振(zhen)動篩(shai),薄膜留在(zai)第二振(zhen)動篩(shai)上,實(shi)現(xian)物(wu)料(liao)的(de)(de)分(fen)離,同時實(shi)現(xian)小(xiao)(xiao)尺(chi)寸薄膜、銅(tong)(tong)以(yi)及鋁的(de)(de)分(fen)離;

4、進(jin)一步的,進(jin)行磁篩選工序(xu):將(jiang)振(zhen)動篩上(shang)的物料(liao)經過磁鐵(tie)的下(xia)方,在此過程中磁鐵(tie)將(jiang)物料(liao)上(shang)的鐵(tie)、鎳等(deng)磁性雜質(zhi)吸(xi)走;

5、再然后進(jin)行二(er)(er)次(ci)篩(shai)選工序:向經(jing)過磁(ci)篩(shai)選的物(wu)料加熱使物(wu)料內(nei)的粘(zhan)合(he)劑(ji)蒸發(fa)(fa),將粘(zhan)合(he)黑(hei)粉的粘(zhan)合(he)劑(ji)熔化,并(bing)揮(hui)發(fa)(fa)掉使黑(hei)粉容易被粉碎(sui)(sui),對物(wu)料進(jin)行再次(ci)破碎(sui)(sui),將再次(ci)破碎(sui)(sui)的物(wu)料通過第二(er)(er)旋風分離(li)器(qi)下(xia)方,在此(ci)過程中第二(er)(er)旋風分離(li)器(qi)吸入(ru)細小(xiao)顆(ke)(ke)粒和尾氣,將尾氣排入(ru)第二(er)(er)脈沖除塵器(qi)內(nei),并(bing)將細小(xiao)顆(ke)(ke)粒排入(ru)第二(er)(er)圓盤振動(dong)篩(shai)上(shang),在此(ci)過程中顆(ke)(ke)粒小(xiao)的黑(hei)粉通過第二(er)(er)振動(dong)篩(shai),薄膜留在第二(er)(er)圓盤振動(dong)篩(shai)上(shang),實(shi)現(xian)物(wu)料的再次(ci)分離(li);在蒸發(fa)(fa)粘(zhan)結劑(ji)前所有破碎(sui)(sui)及輸送全部密封氮氣保護(hu);

6、將再(zai)次破碎后(hou)的(de)物(wu)(wu)料(liao)(liao)放置于(yu)直線(xian)振(zhen)動(dong)篩(shai)(shai)上(shang),在(zai)此(ci)過(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)中顆粒小(xiao)的(de)黑(hei)(hei)粉(fen)到(dao)(dao)達收(shou)料(liao)(liao)盒內;進(jin)而將直線(xian)振(zhen)動(dong)篩(shai)(shai)上(shang)的(de)大顆粒物(wu)(wu)料(liao)(liao)輸送到(dao)(dao)錘式(shi)細(xi)破機(ji)上(shang)破碎成細(xi)物(wu)(wu)料(liao)(liao),將物(wu)(wu)料(liao)(liao)再(zai)次細(xi)化,然后(hou)細(xi)物(wu)(wu)料(liao)(liao)經(jing)(jing)過(guo)直線(xian)振(zhen)動(dong)篩(shai)(shai),在(zai)此(ci)過(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)中氣流分選機(ji)將直線(xian)振(zhen)動(dong)篩(shai)(shai)上(shang)的(de)銅粒和(he)鋁粒吸走;進(jin)而直線(xian)振(zhen)動(dong)篩(shai)(shai)上(shang)的(de)物(wu)(wu)料(liao)(liao)再(zai)經(jing)(jing)過(guo)第(di)三(san)圓盤(pan)振(zhen)動(dong)篩(shai)(shai),此(ci)時只留(liu)下(xia)黑(hei)(hei)粉(fen);在(zai)此(ci)過(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)中經(jing)(jing)過(guo)第(di)二(er)直線(xian)振(zhen)動(dong)篩(shai)(shai)的(de)物(wu)(wu)料(liao)(liao)只有(you)黑(hei)(hei)粉(fen),黑(hei)(hei)粉(fen)到(dao)(dao)達第(di)三(san)圓盤(pan)振(zhen)動(dong)篩(shai)(shai)后(hou)從其(qi)上(shang)的(de)網孔內掉(diao)落(luo)到(dao)(dao)收(shou)料(liao)(liao)盒內。

鋰電(dian)池回(hui)收處理(li)設備(bei)一種預處理(li)式(shi)鋰電(dian)池分離(li)(li)回(hui)收方法,采用多(duo)(duo)次(ci)破(po)碎(sui)多(duo)(duo)次(ci)物(wu)理(li)分步驟分離(li)(li)物(wu)料的方式(shi),實現徹底(di)將薄(bo)膜、銅鋁箔以及黑粉徹底(di)分離(li)(li)的效果,避免了(le)(le)對(dui)人體的傷害(hai),降低了(le)(le)對(dui)環境的污染,節約了(le)(le)資源。

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